In 1948, French film critic Alexandre Astruc wrote about the concept of the caméra-stylo or "camera-pen," his idea that directors should use their cameras the way a writer uses their pen.
With cinematographer Gordon Willis, Francis Ford Coppola accomplishes just this in The Godfather. Utilizing unorthodox lighting techniques, the film constantly conveys information visually just through how Coppola gazes at this story. Compare any shot of Kay to any shot of Apollonia. It is not the what, but the how.